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Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. Adolescence is the developmental epoch during which children become adults — intellectually, physically, hormonally, and socially. Adolescence is a tumultuous time, full of changes and transformations.

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The pubertal transition to adulthood involves both gonadal and behavioral maturation. The maturation of the adolescent brain is also influenced by heredity, environment, and sex hormones estrogen, progesterone, and testosteronewhich play a crucial role in myelination. Furthermore, glutamatergic neurotransmission predominates, whereas gamma-aminobutyric acid neurotransmission remains under construction, and this might be responsible for immature and impulsive behavior and neurobehavioral excitement during adolescent life.

The adolescent population is highly vulnerable to driving under the influence of alcohol and social maladjustments due to an immature limbic system and prefrontal cortex. Synaptic plasticity and the release of neurotransmitters may also be influenced by environmental neurotoxins and drugs of abuse including cigarettes, caffeine, and alcohol during adolescence.

Adolescents may become involved with offensive crimes, irresponsible behavior, unprotected sex, juvenile courts, or even prison. According to a report by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the major cause of death among the teenage population is due to injury and violence related to sex and substance abuse. Prenatal neglect, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption may also ificantly impact maturation of the adolescent brain. Pharmacological interventions to regulate adolescent behavior have been attempted with limited success.

Since several factors, including age, sex, disease, nutritional status, Lady seeking hot sex Bonaire substance abuse have a ificant impact on the maturation of the adolescent brain, we have highlighted the influence of these clinically ificant and socially important aspects in this report. It is now realized that several major morphological and functional changes occur in the human brain during adolescence. Particularly ificant changes occur in the limbic system, which may impact self-control, decision making, emotions, and risk-taking behaviors.

The brain also experiences a surge of myelin synthesis in the frontal lobe, which is implicated in cognitive processes during adolescence. Brain maturation during adolescence ages 10—24 years could be governed by several factors, as illustrated in Figure 1. It may be influenced by heredity and environment, prenatal and postnatal insult, nutritional status, sleep patterns, pharmacotherapy, and surgical interventions during early childhood.

Furthermore, physical, mental, economical, and psychological stress; drug abuse caffeine, nicotine, and alcohol ; and sex hormones including estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone can influence the development and maturation of the adolescent Lady seeking hot sex Bonaire. MRI studies have suggested that neurocircuitry and myelinogenesis remain under construction during adolescence because these events in the central nervous system CNS are transcriptionally regulated by sex hormones that are specifically increased during puberty.

Notes: Brain maturation is influenced by heredity and environment, prenatal and postnatal insult, nutritional status, sleep patterns, pharmacotherapy, and surgical interventions during early childhood. Furthermore, physical, mental, economical, and psychological stress; drug abuse caffeine, nicotine, and ethanol ; and sex hormones, including estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone influence the development and maturation of the adolescent brain. MRI studies have suggested that neurocircuitry and myelinogenesis remain under construction during adolescence because these events in the CNS depend on sex hormones that are specifically increased during puberty.

Neurobehavioral, morphological, neurochemical, and pharmacological evidence suggests that the brain remains under construction during adolescence, 1237122122232749 as illustrated in Figure 2. Thus, the consolidation of neurocybernetics occurs during adolescence by the maturation of neurocircuitry and myelination. Although tubulinogenesis, axonogenesis, and synaptogenesis may be accomplished during prenatal and immediate postnatal life, myelinogenesis remains active during adolescent life.

Neurochemical evidence suggests that glutamatergic neurotransmission is accomplished during prenatal and immediate postnatal life while gamma-aminobutyric acid GABA ergic neurotransmission, particularly in the prefrontal cortex, remains under construction during adolescence.

Indeed, adolescents are risk-taking and novelty-seeking individuals and they are more likely to weigh positive experiences more heavily and negative experiences less so than adults. This behavioral bias can lead to engagement in risky activities like reckless driving, unprotected sex, and drug abuse. The hormonal changes in puberty contribute to physical, emotional, intellectual, and social changes during adolescence.

These changes do not just induce maturation of reproductive function and the emergence of secondary sex characteristics, but they also contribute to the appearance of sex differences in nonreproductive behaviors. Physical changes, including accelerated body growth, sexual maturation, and development of secondary sexual characteristics occur simultaneously along with social, emotional, and cognitive development during adolescence. Furthermore, the adolescent brain evolves its capability to organize, regulate impulses, and weigh risks and rewards; however, these changes can make adolescents highly vulnerable to risk-taking behavior.

Thus, brain maturation is an extremely important aspect of overall adolescent development, and a basic understanding of the process might aid in the understanding of adolescent sexual behavior, pregnancy, and intellectual performance issues.

Notes: Several neurobehavioral, morphological, neurochemical, and pharmacological evidences suggest that the brain remains under construction during adolescence. Furthermore, glutamatergic neurotransmission is accomplished during prenatal and immediate postnatal life, while GABAergic neurotransmission in the prefrontal cortex remains under construction.

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Delayed development of GABAergic neurotransmission among adolescents is implicated in neurobehavioral excitement and risk-taking behavior. There are several other crucial developmental aspects of adolescence that are associated with changes in physical, cognitive, and psychosocial characteristics, as well as with attitudes toward intimacy and independence, and these may also influence brain maturation; these will also be discussed in the present report.

Furthermore, we emphasize the deleterious effects of drug abuse and the clinical ificance of nutrition from fish oils and fatty acids in adolescent brain maturation. Moreover, the neurocircuitry may be forged, refined or weakened, and damaged during plasticity. Thus, neuronal proliferation, rewiring, dendritic pruning, and environmental exposure are important components of brain plasticity during adolescence. A ificant portion of brain growth and development occurring in adolescence is the construction and strengthening of regional neurocircuitry and pathways; in particular, the brain stem, cerebellum, occipital lobe, parietal lobe, frontal lobe, and temporal lobe actively mature during adolescence.

The frontal lobes are involved in movement control, problem solving, spontaneity, memory, language, initiation, judgment, impulse control, and social and sexual behavior. Furthermore, the prefrontal cortex, which is implicated in drug-seeking behavior, remains in a process of continuous reconstruction, consolidation, and maturation during adolescence.

It is well established that various morphological and physiological changes occur in the human brain during adolescence. The second surge of synaptogenesis occurs in the brain during the adolescent years. Hence, adolescence is one of the most dynamic events of human growth and development, second only to infancy in terms of the rate of developmental changes that can occur within the brain. Although there is no single definition of adolescence or a set age boundary, Kaplan 4 has pointed out that puberty refers to the hormonal changes that occur in early youth, and adolescence may extend well beyond the teenage years.

In fact, there are characteristic developmental changes that almost all adolescents experience during their transition from childhood to adulthood. Several investigators consider the age span 10—24 years as adolescence, which can be further divided into substages specific to physical, cognitive, and social—emotional development. Longitudinal MRI studies have confirmed that Lady seeking hot sex Bonaire second surge of neuronal growth occurs just before puberty.

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Following neuronal proliferation, the brain rewires itself from the onset of puberty up until 24 years old, especially in the prefrontal cortex. The rewiring is accomplished by dendritic pruning and myelination. The myelination also optimizes the communication of information throughout the CNS and augments the speed of information processing. Thus, dendritic pruning and myelination are functionally very important for accomplishing efficient neurocybernetics in the adolescent brain. During adolescence, the neurocircuitry strengthens and allows for multitasking, enhanced ability to solve problems, and the capability to process complex information.

Furthermore, adolescent brain plasticity provides an opportunity to develop talents and lifelong interests; however, neurotoxic insult, trauma, chronic stress, drug abuse, and sedentary lifestyles may have a negative impact during this sensitive period of brain maturation. Out of several neurotransmitters in the CNS, three play a ificant role in the maturation of adolescent behavior: dopamine, serotonin, and melatonin.

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Its levels decrease during adolescence, resulting in mood swings and difficulties regulating emotions. Serotonin plays a ificant role in mood alterations, anxiety, impulse control, and arousal. Its levels also decrease during adolescence, and this is associated with decreased impulse control. Lastly, melatonin regulates circadian rhythms and the sleep—wake cycle.

It is now known that hormones are not the only explanation for erratic adolescent behavior; hence, investigators are now trying to establish the exact nature of the interrelationship between pubertal processes and adolescent brain maturation. Dahl has explained three main of brain changes related to puberty: 1 changes that precede puberty; 2 changes that are the consequence of puberty; and 3 changes that occur after puberty is over.

These changes, which are the consequence of puberty, occur primarily in the brain regions closely linked to emotions, arousal, motivation, as well as to appetite and sleep patterns. Brain changes independent of puberty are those related to the development of advanced cognitive functioning. Animal studies have shown that sex hormones estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone are critically involved in myelination.

The suggest that sex hormones organize structural connections and activate the brain areas they connect. These processes could underlie a better integration of structural and functional communication between brain regions with age. Specifically, ovarian hormones estradiol and progesterone may enhance both corticocortical and subcorticocortical functional connectivity, whereas androgens testosterone may decrease subcorticocortical functional connectivity but increase the functional connectivity between subcortical brain areas. Therefore, when examining brain Lady seeking hot sex Bonaire and aging, or when investigating the possible biological mechanisms of neurological diseases, the contribution of sex hormones should not be ignored.

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A recent study has described how the social brain develops during adolescence. A developmental clock — along with the als that provide information on somatic growth, energy balance, and season of the year — times the awakening of gonadotropin-releasing hormone GnRH neurons at the onset of puberty.

High-frequency GnRH release in the disinhibition and activation of GnRH neurons at the onset of puberty, leading to gametogenesis and an increase in sex hormone secretion. Sex hormones and adrenocorticotropic hormones both remodel and activate neurocircuits during adolescent brain development, leading to the development of sexual salience of sensory stimuli, sexual motivation, and expression of copulatory behavior.

These influences of hormones on reproductive behavior depend on changes in the adolescent brain that occur independently of gonadal maturation. Reproductive maturity is therefore the product of developmentally timed, brain-driven, and recurrent interactions between steroid hormones and the adolescent nervous system. The limbic system is a group of structures located deep within the cerebrum. It is composed of the amygdala, the hippocampus, and the hypothalamus. These brain regions are involved in the expression of emotions and motivation, which are related to survival.

The emotions include fear, anger, and the fight or fight response. The limbic system is also involved in feelings of pleasure that reward behaviors related to species survival, such as eating and sex. In addition, the limbic system regulates functions related to memory storage and retrieval of events that invoke a strong emotional response. Neuroimaging studies have revealed that when interacting with others and making decisions, adolescents are more likely than adults to be swayed by their emotions.

Because adolescents rely heavily on the emotional regions of their brains, it can be challenging to make what adults consider logical and appropriate decisions, as illustrated in Figure 3. A diagram illustrating the developmental regulation of executive functions by the prefrontal cortex, which remains under construction during adolescence. Notes: Several executive brain functions are governed by the prefrontal cortex, which remains in a state of active maturation during adolescence.

These complex brain functions are regulated by the prefrontal cortex as illustrated in this figure based on the original discoveries by Gedd and Steinberg. Recently, investigators have studied various aspects of the maturation process of the prefrontal cortex of adolescents. The prefrontal cortex, the part of the frontal lobes lying just behind the forehead, is responsible for cognitive analysis, abstract thought, and the moderation of correct behavior in social situations. The prefrontal cortex acquires information from all of the senses and orchestrates thoughts and actions in order to achieve specific goals.

The prefrontal cortex is one of the last regions of the brain to reach maturation, which explains why some adolescents exhibit behavioral immaturity. The fact that brain development is not complete until near the age of 25 years refers specifically to the development of the prefrontal cortex. An algorithmic diagram illustrating the management of emotions and motivation by the limbic system in the adolescent brain. Notes: The nucleus accumbens and amygdala are the two most prominent parts of the central nervous system involved in riskier behavior and increased sex drive among teenage adolescents.

The nucleus accumbens is highly sensitized to accomplish desirable goals. A decrease in dopamine in the nucleus accumbens is involved in increased vulnerability to drug addiction and risky decisions. Sex hormones estrogen and testosterone bind Lady seeking hot sex Bonaire their receptors to induce increased sex drive and emotional volatility and impulsivity. Due to an immature prefrontal cortex, adolescents also have an increased sex drive and problems in self-regulation as illustrated in this flow diagram. MRI studies have discovered that developmental processes tend to occur in the brain in a back-to-front pattern, explaining why the prefrontal cortex develops last.

These studies have also shown that teens have less white matter myelin in the frontal lobes compared to adults, Lady seeking hot sex Bonaire that myelin in the frontal lobes increases throughout adolescence. During adolescence, white matter increases in the corpus callosum, the bundle of nerve fibers connecting the right and left hemispheres of the brain, which allows for efficient communication between the hemispheres and enables an individual to access a full array of analytical and creative strategies to respond to complex dilemmas that may arise in adolescent life.

Hence, the role of experience is critical in developing the neurocircuitry that allows for increased cognitive control of the emotions and impulses of adolescence. Adolescents, who tend to engage in risky behaviors in relatively safe environments, utilize this circuitry and develop the skills to tackle more dangerous situations; however, with an immature prefrontal cortex, even if adolescents understand that something is dangerous, they may still engage in such risky behavior.

The exact biological basis of risk-taking behavior in adolescents remains enigmatic. Adolescents are at their peak of physical strength, resilience, and immune function, yet mortality rates among 15—24 year olds are more than triple the mortality rates of middle school children. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has identified the leading causes of death and illness among adolescents, 222359 as illustrated in Figure 5.

It is generally held that adolescents take risks to test and define themselves, as risk-taking can be both beneficial and harmful. It can lead to situations where new skills are learned and new experiences can prepare them for future challenges in their lives. Risk-taking serves as a means of discovery about oneself, others, and the world at large. The proclivity for risk-taking behavior plays a ificant role in adolescent development, rendering this a period of time for both accomplishing their full potential and vulnerability.

Hence, acquiring knowledge regarding adolescent brain maturation can help understand why teens take risks, while keeping in mind that risk-taking behavior is a normal and necessary component of adolescence. This knowledge may help in developing physiologically and pharmacologically effective interventions that focus on reducing the negative consequences associated with risk-taking behavior among the adolescent population.

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Maturation of the adolescent brain