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Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. The UK has the highest rate of teenage pregnancies in western Europe.

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Although there is a large body of literature focusing on predictors of conception among this age group, almost all the work compares those young women who have become pregnant with their peers, regardless of whether or not their peers have experienced sexual intercourse. Those who engage in sexual intercourse at a relatively young age will often have had more opportunity to become pregnant than those whose sexual debut comes later.

Similarly, the fact that those who use contraception at first intercourse have been less likely to conceive than those who do not could reflect the overall patterns of contraceptive use: young women who have used contraception at each occasion of intercourse will have had less chance to conceive than those who have not.

Having a young partner at first intercourse suggests that, if this pattern continues, the couple may lack the resources needed to prevent a pregnancy due to the immaturity of both partners. Attempts to reduce conception rates among this age group need to be grounded firmly in an understanding of this social phenomenon. A large and growing body of literature focuses on the predictors of teenage pregnancy, comparing young women who have become pregnant with their peers. However, the literature also informs us that most teenagers who become pregnant say that their pregnancy was not planned: three quarters of teenage pregnancies are thought to be unplanned, with the proportion even larger for young teenagers.

Although it may be that some of those questioned were reluctant to admit that they were engaging in unprotected sex, contraceptive failure, whether through improper use or because of a high level of fecundity among this age group, may not be uncommon. Two cohorts participated, from subsequent school years.

The data were collected between and Details of the study, which is still in progress, have been published elsewhere. Those surveyed in school completed the questionnaires during lesson time, in examination conditions with no teacher present. The questionnaires focused on sexual attitudes, beliefs and behaviour, as well as on other aspects of the young people's lifestyles.

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It is therefore assumed that all pregnancies occurred between time 1 and time 2. Weighting was used to deal with the issue of attrition; original s and weighted percentages and p values are presented throughout the paper. Multivariate backward stepwise logistic regression was used to assess differences between the excluded females from this education authority and the included sample.

The only ificant difference between the two groups was in age at first sexual intercourse; the excluded samples were older at first intercourse OR 1. A further 18 females did not answer the pregnancy question. They were also excluded, leaving a total sample of young women. They were excluded from the bivariate and multivariate analyses, leaving a sample of females.

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Multivariate backward stepwise logistic regression was Local girls looking for sex Hughes OK to produce adjusted ORs and to assess their ificance. In all, 88 A total of 51 Weighting was used to deal with the issue of attrition; original s and weighted percentages and p values are presented in the table. The variables found to be ificant at the bivariate level were entered into a multivariate backward stepwise logistic regression model. The factors that remained ificant were: age at first intercourse OR 0. Therefore, the likelihood of pregnancy was ificantly lower among those who were older when they first had sexual intercourse, whose partner was also older and who used contraception at that time.

The estimation of the area below the ROC curve is 0. Of those teenagers who have experience of sexual intercourse, who becomes pregnant? The analysis conducted here suggests those who were, at first intercourse, very young, whose partner was also young and who did not use contraception are most likely to become pregnant. They may, therefore, have had more opportunity to become pregnant. The processes linking the young age of partner at first intercourse to early pregnancy, however, are probably more complex.

It is not unreasonable to assume, however, that if first intercourse took place with a partner only slightly older than oneself, this pattern may continue whether with the same partner or with someone else of a similar age. Hence, early teenage pregnancies may probably occur in couples where both partners are very young. This hypothesis is plausible on a of s. Both members of the couple, because of their young age, may lack the maturity necessary to adequately plan the prevention of a pregnancy. It is less likely still that they will have direct experience of others of their age who are living with a baby of their own, with all the limitations that this may place on one's social life and other freedoms.

Although there is a large body of literature focusing on predictors of conception among teenagers, almost all the work compares those young women who have become pregnant with their peers, regardless of whether or not their peers have experienced sexual intercourse. The findings highlight the importance of focusing on the partner of the young woman who becomes pregnant to better understand early teenage pregnancy.

Initiatives that target teenagers of both sexes who are likely to embark on sexual activity at an early age, as well as those already sexually active, and which focus on promoting the use of contraception and on delivering the skills needed to use contraception correctly may reduce conception rates among young teenagers.

Compounding all of this may be the lack of skills and confidence on the part of both partners to discuss contraceptive use with each other. Furthermore, although the young women who become pregnant are probably relatively experienced in sexual intercourse although compared with other sexually active young women of their own age onlytheir young partners may not be.

This may also have implications for contraceptive use.

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The couple may, for example, fail to use a condom as intercourse may not be expected and, therefore, they may not have one in hand. Or, they may use a condom incorrectly due to lack of practice or experience. Our analyses raise as many questions as they answer about early teenage pregnancy.

It is crucial, if teenage pregnancy rates are to be reduced further, that more is learnt about the partners of those young women who do become pregnant. Are they relatively young, as much of this discussion has assumed? It is startling that although a great deal of demographic data now exist about teenage women in UK who have become pregnant, there are no systematic data about their partners on the occasion of their becoming pregnant. There is a pressing need to discover more about the pathways to early fatherhood, and to examine ways of preventing very young men from conceiving pregnancies.

How can these young teenagers be better targeted to reduce their risk of conception, either by delaying sexual debut or by increasing correct usage of contraception? What is the nature and extent of condom failure among this age group, and how is the contraceptive pill used by young teenagers?.

If a very young man and very young woman are going to engage in intercourse, we must ensure not only that they are able and willing to obtain contraceptives but also that they use them correctly. More research is needed before initiatives can be deed, which will achieve these challenging objectives. This research must attend to the perspectives of both partners responsible for creating a pregnancy.

We thank the young people who participated in the study and their teachers who facilitated this; the project team, in particular Marion Henderson, the survey manager, and Daniel Wight, the principal investigator; and Geoff Der for his statistical advice. The study was funded by the Medical Research Council.

Competing interests: None. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. J Epidemiol Community Health. Author information Article notes Copyright and information Disclaimer. Accepted Jul This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Conclusions Those who engage in sexual intercourse at a relatively young age will often have had more opportunity to become pregnant than those whose sexual debut comes later. Existing research on teenage conceptions A large and growing body of literature focuses on the predictors of teenage pregnancy, comparing young women who have become pregnant with their peers.

Open in a separate window. Discussion Of those teenagers who have experience of sexual Local girls looking for sex Hughes OK, who becomes pregnant? What this paper adds Although there is a large body of literature focusing on predictors of conception among teenagers, almost all the work compares those young women who have become pregnant with their peers, regardless of whether or not their peers have experienced sexual intercourse. Acknowledgements We thank the young people who participated in the study and their teachers who facilitated this; the project team, in particular Marion Henderson, the survey manager, and Daniel Wight, the principal investigator; and Geoff Der for his statistical advice.

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